Studies on antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of solanum trilobatum against some human pathogens

Esath Natheer S., Thenmozhi A and Syed Abdul Rahman M

The in vitro antibacterial activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and phytochemical screening of principle bioactive compounds in Solanum trilobatum (leaf, fruit and root) extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against some human pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MIC studies were carried out with Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae on the basis of potentially inhibitory effect against plant extracts by disk diffusion method with chloramphenicol and solvents (aqueous, methanol and chloroform) served as positive and negative controls, respectively. All solvent extracts inhibited the growth of tested microorganisms. Among the solvent extract tested, methanol extract showed maximum antibacterial activity against all the organisms when compared to aqueous and chloroform extract. Solanum trilobatum leaf extract found to possess maximum antibacterial activity than fruit and root extracts. Staphylococcus aureus were found to be more susceptible to the tested plant extracts than Klebsiella pneumoniae and inhibited at relatively lower concentration of about 20 mg mL-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of components such as alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, anthroquinone and trepenoid indicates S. trilobatum is one of the potential medicinal plant for therapeutic use. The results of the present study clearly envisaged the antibacterial activity of Solanum trilobatum and phytochemicals present in the plant extracts may have acted alone or in combination were effective against tested pathogenic microorganisms.

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